2100 2050 2000 1950 1900 1850 1800 1750 1700 1650 1600 1550 1500 1450 1400 1350 1300 1250 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 950 900 850 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000
XXI XX XIX XVIII XVII XVI XV XIV XIII XII XI X IX VIII VII VI V IV III II I           I                   II         III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX XXI
<---- BRONZE AGE LATE BRONZE AGE COLLAPSE IRON AGE ---->           c. 1050-586 BC - MONARCHIC PERIOD     c. 586-539 BC - EXILIC PERIOD   c. 538-330 BC - POST-EXILIC PERSIAN PERIOD       330-164 BCE - POST-EXILIC HELLENISTIC PERIOD     164-4 BC - MACCABEAN/HASMONEAN PERIOD                                  
                                        (1516 - 1517) (1968-1976, 1997, 1998) (1906, 1913, 1937) (2004, est. 2020)
<----- OLD KINGDOM OF EGYPT (2686-2181 BC)   𝕸 *Mikraot Gedolot (Tanakh) 𝕸 *Biblia Hebraica (BH) *Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) *Biblia Hebraica Quinta (BHQ)
<----- FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD OF EGYPT (2181-2055 BC)                         (Tanakh - Mikraot Gedolot)
MIDDLE KINGDOM OF EGYPT (2055-1650 BC) ----->         𝕸 𝕸   (1887,91,96; 1907, 1909-1922, 1930) (1906)
𝕸                                                           Hebrew Bible:     c. 7th-10th centuries - Masoretic Text (MT) - Copying, editing and distribution       *c. 900-930 - Aleppo Codex *1008-1009 - Leningrad Codex                   SWETE-CAMBRIDGE LXX: H. B. Swete's Septuagint Cambridge Septuagint - Brooke, McLean
<----- AKKADIAN EMPIRE (c. 2334-2154 BC) Proto-Masoretic Text Discoveries in the Judaean Deser (DJD - Proto-MT)   Targumim (Aramaic)           *c. 1549 - Daniel Bomberg   (Major "diplomatic" edition)
GUTIAN DYNASTY OF SUMER / KUTI / KUTIANS (c. 2135-2055 BC)               *Maekhet Soferim (Talmud) - "The Tractate of the Scribes" (1519 - 1523) Critical Editions of LXX   (1935, 1967, 1979) (2006)
THIRD DYNASTY OF UR / UR III / NEO-SUMERIAN EMPIRE (2112-2004 BC)     Psa. (39), Deu. (33), 1 Enoch (25), Gen. (24), Isa. (22), Jubilees (21), Exo. (18), Lev. (17), Num. (11), Min. Prophets (10), Dan. (8), Jer. (6), Eze. (6), Job (6), Tobit (5), Ki. (4), Sa. (4), Jdg. (4), Sng (4), Rth (4), Lam. (4), Sirach (3), Ecc (2), Jos. (2), Baruch 6 (?) Jewish Talmud: *c. 200 - "Authoritative" Mishnah *c. 300 - Tosefta   *350-400: Jerusalem Gerama   *c. 499 - Babylonian Gerama                   Commentary on Talmud & Tanakh:   *1040-1105 - Rashi *c. XII - Tosafot               *Talmud (Bomberg)     RAHLFS-GOTTINGEN LXX: Alfred Rahlf's Septuagint   Robert Hanhart's Septuaginta
    Dead Sea Scrolls (Mixed types - Proto-MT, Proto-Samaritan, Proto-Septuagint)   (Minor Edition - semi-critical) (Revision of Rahlfs' Septuaginta)
<----- OLD ASSYRIAN EMPIRE Urtext - Tanakh (???) NOT INCLUDED: Esther (LIMITED COPIES: Chronicles, Ezrah-Nehemiah, Proverbs, Hosea?)   *Genesis Apocryphon (Aramaic)                                           (1931)
<----- EARLY ASSYRIAN PERIOD (2600-2025 BC) (disputed)               Göttingen Septuagint
  Proto-Samaritan Text Samaritan Pentateuch (SP)       (1831) (Major edition - fully critical)
Common SP/LXX Source       Lucian (LXX) (mainly MSS b, o, c2, e2)   First official break with TR: Lachmann's Greek NT
Enuma Elish ("When on High") - Babylonian creation myth *Documentary Hypothesis TORAH (Pentateuch)   "LXX" Vorlage Old Greek (OG) Translation - Septuagint (LXX) (𝕲*)     Expansion of LXX translation corpus (Th) Symmachus (LXX) (Periphrastic Translation)     ----> Post-Hexaplaric Revisions of the LXX   e (1841, 1849, 1859, 1869, 1872, 1873) (2017)
(Myth of Inanna and the Huluppu Tree)   kaige-Theodotion Revision (LXX) (Conflated with later revisions by Theodotion)                       Theodotion (LXX)     Pre-Hexaplaric Revisions of the LXX <----- Origen's Hexapla (LXX)   Zographensis (OCS) (Glagolitic) Tischendorf (NT + LXX) τ - Tishendorf   Tyndale House Greek NT
Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld (Sumerian)       Epic of Atra-Hasis (c. XVIII)   Eridu Genesis - Sumerian Ugarit texts (Legend of Keret, Legends of Danel, the Baal Cycle) Genesis 2: "J Source" (Jahwist) (Southern text from Israel)       Genesis 1   Genesis 2-50 (Bereshit)       Aquila (LXX) (LXX revision based on MT)         Hesychius (LXX)   (Bulgarian recension) e (1844 - r, 1857)     (Tregelle)
Genesis 1: "E Source" (Elohist) (Northern text from Judah)     *Aleph - Codex Sinaiticus (LXX)     e (Minuscule 33) Ostromir Gospels (OCS) (Cyrillic) Tregelles (TGNT) CRITICAL TEXT
?    <------------ Enki and the World Order (Sumerian) Hindu Vedas Exodus (Shemot)     *B - Codex Vaticanus (Th LXX) (pre-Hexaplaric in all books except Isaiah) *A - Codex Alexandrinus (Th LXX)   *Q - Codex Marchalianus (Th LXX)     Sava's Book (OCS) (Cyrillic) (East Slavic recension)   (1881)     (2010)
(Reworking & Inscription of earlier oral tradition)   "Priestly Source" (P)                                                 (East Slavic recension)   e Wescott-Hort w - Wescott-Hort SBL Greek NT
(Lev. 17-26) "Holiness Code" (H) Leviticus (Vayikra)   Papyrus 967 (OG LXX - Daniel)                     *Codex Christianus 45 (OG LXX)   e     Mstislav Lectionary (OCS) (Cyrillic)   (1902-1010) (Wescott-Hort & Tregelle)
          Assemanius (OCS)   (Glagolitic) (East Slavic recension) e (1881) von Soden's Greek NT
Numbers (Bamidbar)   (Bulgarian recension)         Gospels of Tsar Alexander (OCS) (Cyrillic) Palmer's Greek NT (c. 1900)
  e ap (Bulgarian recension) Bernhard Weiss' Greek NT
"Deuteronomistic Source" (D) Deuteronomy 5-26 Deuteronomy 1-4, 29-30   Deuteronomy (D'varim)   Marianus (OCS) (Glagolitic) Enina Apostle (OCS) (Cyrillic) (1892) (1903)
  Book of Elchasai (Lost) Greek Apocalypse of Ezra -------> ? (Serbian recension) (Bulgarian recension) Resultant Greek NT Weymouth (WNT) (English)
Sumerian Language (Language Isolate) Extinction of Sumerian Language (2000-1800 BC)   Deuteronomistic History     Apocalypse of Abraham     Old Church Slavonic MSS         CRITICAL EDITIONS OF THE BIBLE  
(Preferred scribal language for written records)   Gospel of Thomas         (Gospel of Thomas) Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1     (Greek)    
Joshua     Joshua (Nevi'im Rishonim - Former Prophet)   Infancy Gospel of Thomas Proto-Gospel of James -------> ?   e   e CRITICAL TEXT (1889, 1901, '02, '03, '04, '09, '24, '27 [13th], '29, 36, '52 [21st], '63, '66, '68, '75 [26th], '93, 2014 [28th]
Cuneiform script (Sumero-Akkadian)   The Preaching of Peter Paul's Epistle to the Laodiceans (forgery) (Col 4:16) Minuscule 461   Minuscule 2 (TR) (1516, 1519, 1522, 1527, 1536)     Novum Testamentum Graece ---------> Nestle-Aland (21st-28th Editions / UBS 1-5) u - UBS
Judges     Judges (Nevi'im Rishonim - Former Prophet) 1 Enoch (Book of the Watchers)     1 Enoch (Book of Parables) (Non-Canonical) Ascension of Isaiah / Martyrdom of Isaiah (Heb 11:37) Gospel of Peter Trimorphic Protennoia Origin of the World (1st dated ms - 835 AD)   (Basis of Erasmus' TR) First published Greek Text: Erasmus' NT (Greek) (Desiderius Erasmus)      
Akkadian Language (East Semitic)   2 Enoch (Slavonic Enoch / Secrets of Enoch) (Jude 4,6,13,14-15, 2 Peter 2:4, 3:13) Exigetica - Gnostic Basilides (135) ?    <------------ Gospel of the Nazarenes Didascalia e†   e   (1522 - Comma Johanneum)   (1881, 1885, 1894)   MODERN ENGLISH BIBLES
Assyrian / Babylonian Dialects of Akkadian Ruth (c. VI-IV BC) (Ketuvim)   Assumption of Moses (Jude 9) Marcion 2 Baruch (Jewish) Letter to Flora   F 09 - Boreelianus   Minuscule 111 (TR) (1522, 1534)   Revised Version (ERV/RV) (English)
  (Greek) Apocalypse of Moses / (Latin) Life of Adam and Eve (2 Cor 11:14, 12:2) Epistle of the Apostles   p     p Luther Bible (High German) (Erasmus' 1519 edition)   (1707, 1710, 1723, 1746) (1900, 1901) (2000)
Samuel     Samuel (Nevi'im Rishonim - Former Prophet)       Gospel of Peter Treatise on the Resurrection F 10 - Augiensis (Greek & Latin)   Minuscule 2817 (TR)       Mill's Greek NT American Standard Version (ASV) (English) Hebrew Names (HNV) (English)
Chronicles (Ketuvim-Histories)   Gospel of the Ebionites Apocryphon of John e   eacp (1514-1522, 1517)   (Stephanus 1550) (Based on 1881 Revised Version) (based on ASV)
Kings     Kings (Nevi'im Rishonim - Former Prophet) Greek (1, 2, 3) I Esdras (Deuterocanonical)                 Gospel of the Hebrews (lost) Egerton Gospel   Egerton Papyrus 2 G 011 - Seidelianus I   Minuscule 3 (TR) First printed Greek Text: Complutensian Polyglot NT (Greek/Latin + LXX)   (1709-1719) (1961) (1964) (1981)
Ezra-Nehemiah (Ketuvim-Histories)     4 Ezra / 2 Esdras (Latin Esdras) ---> 2nd century? Greek Gospel of the Egyptians Coptic Gospel of the Egyptians e   e (1546, 1549, 1550, 1551, 1553) (1551 - 1st versification)   Wells' Greek NT (First non-TR edition) New English Bible (NEB) RVG Tasker Revised English (REB) (English)
  (Hebrew/Aramaic original?) Gospel of Mary Constitutions Gospel of Barnabas ------------> (c. 15th century)? H 013 - Seidelianus II   Minuscule 9 (TR) e (Robert Estienne, AKA Stephanus) Editio Regia/Stephanus' NT (Greek)   (1715, 1728, 1743, 1760, 1763, 1794)   (1963, 1971, 1992, 1995)
Southern (Judah) Prophet (Babylonian Crisis): I Isaiah 1-39       II Isaiah 40-45   III Isaiah 56-66 (Nevi'im Aharonim - Latter/Major Prophet)   (no longer extant in Greek) Gospel of Philip ------------> (c. 350)?   Gospel of Gamaliel (Gospel of the Twelve Apostles) a   eap Minuscule 4 (TR)     (1556, 1565, 1582, 1588-9, 1598, 1604, 1611)   Bowyer's Greek NT   New American Standard (NASB) (English - based on ASV)
  5th & 6th Ezra Gospel of Truth Clementine Literature Epistle to Seneca the Younger H 014 - Mutinensis   Minuscule 38 (TR) (Stephanus 1551) Beza's Greek NT     (1725, 1734) (1946) (1971, 2007, 2011, 2016)
Southern (Judah) Prophet (Babylonian Crisis): Jeremiah (Nevi'im Aharonim - Latter / Major Prophet)   (Christian additions of chapters 1-2, 15-16) Epistula Apostolorum Apocalypse of Paul Gnostic Apocalypse of Peter Gospel of the Nativity of Mary e acp   acpr     eacp (1522-25, 1534, 1536)   Bengel's Greek NT Revised Standard (RSV) English Standard (ESV) (English - based on RSV)
Esther     Greek Additions/Expansions (A-F) to Esther (Ketuvim)   Apocalypse of Peter Coptic Apocalypse of Paul Gospel of Bartholomew K 017 - Cyprius Minuscule 221   Minuscule 88   Minuscule 5 (TR) 1st English translation from Hebrew/Greek: Tyndale Bible (English) (published by Coverdale)   (1729)   (1954, 1958, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1987, 2015)
Lamentations (Ketuvim-Poetic)   The Prayer of Joseph Gospel of Judas ?    <------------ Gospel of the Savior Second Treatise of the Great Seth Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew 3 Enoch (Book of Palaces) e (Comma Johanneum) e (Comma Johanneum) e     (c. 1535) TEXTUS RECEPTUS Mace's NT (Greek & English Diglot)   Amplified (AMP) (English - based on ASV)
  III Corinthians Acts of Paul Pearl Hymn Acts of Thomas Acts of Pilate/Gospel of Nicodemus (Hebrew) (Mixed Western with Byzantine & Alexandrian readings) Λ 039 - Tischendorfianus III   Minuscule 8 (TR) Minuscule 120 (TR) (Tyndale + additions from Vulgate & Luther): Coverdale's Bible (Modern English)   (1971) (1996)
Exhilic Prophet: Ezekiel (Nevi'im Aharonim - Latter / Major Prophet) Prayer of Azariah & Song of the 3 Holy Children (Daniel 3:24-90) Gospel of the Lord (of Marcion) Acts of Thecla Syriac/Arabic Infancy Gospel a cp   e r     (1539, 1540) (1624, 1633) (1751-1752) The Living Bible (TLB) New Living Trans. (NLT) (English - based on TLB)
    Acts of Peter Toledot Yeshu (Life of Jesus) ------------> (c. 11th century)?   E 08 - Laudianus (TR) K 018 - Mosquensis I   Minuscule 237 (TR) Minuscule 2814 (TR)   The Great Bible (English) (1557, 1583, 1560) Elzevir Bible (Greek)   Novum Test. Graecum   (English - paraphrase of 1901 ASV) (1989)
Ostensibly VI century BC: Daniel (Ketuvim / Major Prophet)       Daniel 1-6/7 Daniel 7-12 Susanna (Daniel 1:1, Vulgate 13)   Acts of Andrew Secret Gospel of Mark ------------> (c. 20th century)?   (Greek & Latin) acp ap apr ap     Geneva Bible (English) (Erasmus 1522 & Beza 1588-9, 1598) (Johann Jakob Wettstein)   New Revised Standard (NRSV) (English - based on RSV)
    Acts of John   (Earliest witness for Acts 8:37) L 020 - Angelicus Minuscule 398 (TR) Minuscule 42 (TR) Minuscule 2815 (TR)   (1537) (Erasmus' 1522 edition) (Bonaventure & Abraham Elzevir)     (1973, 1978, 1984, 2011) (1994, 1995 - OT, 1996)
The Satire of the Trades Northern (Israel) Prophet (Assyrian Crisis): Hosea     Hosea (Nevi'im Aharonim - Latter / Minor Prophet #1) Bel and the Dragon (Daniel 12:13, Vulgate 14) Gospel of Jesus' Wife   e e e   e   (From Tyndale & Coverdale) Matthew Bible (English) (1568, 1572, 1602) (1611, 1629, 1638, 1760, 1769) (1760, 1769)   New International (NIV) NIV Reader's (NIrV) (English)
(Sirach 38:24–39:11)                     NON-CANONICAL / APOCRYPHA - AUTOGRAPHS                       N 022 - Petropolitanus Purpureus U 030 - Nanianus S 028 - Vaticanus 354   Minuscule 659   (1539) Bishops' Bible (English)   King James Bible (KJV/AV)   KJV - Cambridge-Oxford       (2002, 2005)
Post Exhilic Prophet: Joel (Nevi'im Aharonim - Latter/Minor Prophet #2)     Mat e† r   (Family 1424) e   (Μinor revision of Matthew's Bible) Taverner's Bible (English) (Church of England)   (Modern English)   (Benjamin Blayney)   (1979) Today's NIV (TNIV) (English)
  e*   Mt 18-19 †   O 023 - Sinopensis V 031 - Mosquensis II 046 - Vaticanus 2066   Minuscule 692   (1382-1395) (Richard Taverner)         Nueva Versión Internacional (NVI) (Spanish - based on NIV)
Northern (Israel) Prophet (Assyrian Crisis): Amos - first 1/2     Amos - final 1/2 (Nevi'im Aharonim - Latter / Minor Prophet #3)   Dura Parchment 24 (Greek Diatessaron) P25 (Greek Diatessaron)   e   (close to Minuscules 61 & 69)   (Family 1424) e   Wycliffe's Bible (Middle English)   (1582, 1609-1610) (1675)   (1775-7, 1796-1806, 1803-7)   (1966) (1985) (English - based on NIV)
Book of the Dead     ea   e - Alexandrian in John   P 024 - Guelferbytanus A Purple minuscule: Minuscule 1143 e   Minuscule 349   (From Vulgate) Douay-Rheims Bible (RHE) Fell's Greek NT   Griesbach's Greek NT   Jerusalem Bible (JB) New Jerusalem Bible (NJB) (English - based on JB)
SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD OF EGYPT (1650-1550 BC)    ------> Post Exhilic Prophet: Obadiah (core) (Nevi'im Aharonim - Latter / Minor Prophet #4)   Eclectic/Unknown Text P45 (close affinity) W 032 - Washingtonianus Lk e X 033 - Monacensis   (Family 1424) e   (English Catholic Bible from Vulgate) (Elzevir 1633)   (1776)   (1978, 1986 - OT, 1987)
NEW KINGDOM OF EGYPT (1550-1077 BC)     (Chester Beatty Papyri) Mt† (Byzantine, Western, Caesarean, Alexandrian Mix) R 027 - Nitriensis (Palimpsest - under Syriac treatise & Homer's Iliad) e† Y 034 - Macedoniensis e   Minuscule 267   cp     Harwood's Greek NT   Intl. Chindren's - New Century (ICB-NCV) (English - based on UBS)
    (Caesarean Mark?) P37 (Expanded long ending of Mark) Mt, Mk 047 e Γ 036 - Tischendorfianus IV   (Family 1424) e   (Comma Johanneum) Minuscule 918 (TR) (1654, 1655, 1657)   (1782, 1788, 1803-7)   (1950, 1961)
      John†     (Western Mix with Alexandrian & Caesarean) Σ 042 - Rossanensis (Text in shape of cross) Π 041 - Petropolitanus     e Minuscule 179     Walton's Polyglot (9 languages)   Matthaei's Greek/Vulgate NT   New World Translation (NWT) (English - Jehovah's Witnesses)
Southern (Judah) Prophet (Assyrian Crisis): Micah - second 1/2     Micah - first 1/2 (Nevi'im Aharonim - Latter / Minor Prophet #6)   ???? <------- P66   John 12,14 Mt, Mk e e     Minuscule 160 e   eacpr (Stephanus 1550) (1786-7)   (English - based on ERV) (Greek adapted from NEB) (English - based on NEB)
  CANONICAL NEW TESTAMENT - AUTOGRAPHS   (Alexandrian/Western Mix)   Jn 3:34 Q 026 - Guelferbytanus B φ 043 - Beratinus E 07 - Basilensis Ω 045 - Athous Dionysiou   e (Family 1424) Minuscule 71   Minuscule 61 (Montfortianus/Britannicus) (TR)   Alter's Greek NT   (1966, 1971, 1976, 1979) (1991, 1992, 1995, 1999 - Apocrypha)
Fall of Nineveh, Syria (612): Nahum (Nevi'im Aharonim - Latter / Minor Prophet #7)   (John 18:31-33, 37-38) P80                     Minuscule 115               (Close to Minuscule 69 & Vaticanus 2066)     (1791, 1800)   Good News (GNT/GNB) Contemporary English (CEV) (British English - fresh translation based on GNT)
  p - Pauline Epistles (7) P52 (Alexandrian) Byzantine Text (V)                   e x   acpr apc     Alexander-Thomas' GNT   (English - Dynamic Equivalence) (1993, 2002)
Southern (Judah) Prophet (Babylonian Crisis): Habakkuk (Nevi'im Aharonim - Latter / Minor Prophet #8)   (uncontested authorship) (Undefined Text-type)               M 021 - Campianus Minuscule 27   (Comma Johanneum) Minuscule 429 Minuscule 2816 (TR)   (1661, 1663) (1st American printed Greek bible)   The Message (MSG) (Idiomatic US English)
  Romans  e = Gospels     *c. 310 - Lucianic Recension       (Family 1424) acrpe† e eacp e 1st American non-English Bible: Eliot Indian Bible (1755)   (1941, 1952-1969) (1964, 1970, 1991, 1994, 2000, 2011)
Zephaniah     Zephaniah (Nevi'im Aharonim - Latter / Minor Prophet #9)   1 Corinthians  a = Acts   Antiochan Text       Family 1424       eacpr† e† (Caesarean in Mk) Minuscule 517 e Minuscule 827   Minuscule 185 Minuscule 817 (TR)   (Algonquin language) John Wesley's New Testament CATHOLIC BIBLE: Confraternity Bible (CCD) New American Bible (NAB/RNAB) (English - based on Nestle-Aland)
  2 Corinthians  c = Catholic/General Epistles                   Minuscule 1424   Minuscule 28 Minuscule 7 (TR) (No Pericope Adulterae)     (Revision of the KJV)   (English - based on Vulgate) (1995)
Post Exhilic Prophet: Haggai (Nevi'im Aharonim - Latter / Minor Prophet #10)   Galatians  p = Pauline Epistles     Byzantine/Caesarean             (Family 1424)   e   eacp       eacpr       Gods Word Translation (GW) (English - based on Nestle-Aland)
  Philippians  r = Revelation         Family 13 (Ferrar Group) e   e Minuscule 124 Minuscule 1 (Basilensis) (TR)     eacp Minuscule 205     (c. 1804, 1819) (2010, 2011)
Post Exhilic Prophet: Zachariah (Nevi'im Aharonim - Latter / Minor Prophet #11)   1 Thessalonians EASTERN TEXT     (Pericope Adulterae after Lk 21:38) Θ 038 - Koridethi Minuscule 1346 (Family 13) (Family 1) Minuscule 209 eacpr     Jefferson Bible Common English Bible (CEB) (English - based on Nestle-Aland)
  Philemon (sometimes grouped with Pastoral Epistles)     (Long ending of Mark) (Family 13) e e (Family 1) Minuscule 69 (Close to Minuscule 61 & Vaticanus 2066)     (Abbridged - Greek {TR}, Latin, French, English)  
Post Exhilic Prophet: Malachi (Nevi'im Aharonim - Latter / Minor Prophet #12)                                         e   e   Minuscule 1071 Minuscule 13 (Family 13)     (1830-1836)   (2005)
  p - Deutero-Pauline Epistles (3)   Caesarean Text       Family 1 (Lake Group)   Minuscule 1582 Minuscule 700 e   (Family 13)       eacp     Scholz's Greek NT New English Translation (NET) (English)
Job (Nevi'im Aharonim - Ketuvim-Wisdom)   (contested Pauline authorship)       e (Family 1 in Matthew) e† Minuscule 346 e Minuscule 131     (1833) (2003, 2009)
  Ephesians   Mk 1:79, 16-18     Purple minuscule: Minuscule 565   Minuscule 174 (Family 13) Minuscule 118 (Family 1)     Webster's Revision (WEB) (1909, 1917) Holman (HCSB) (English)
Psalms - first 2/3     Psalms "of David"         Psalms - final 1/3 (Ketuvim-Poetic)   Colossians   P137 ("Mummy Gospel")   eacpr + 1 & 2 Clement   (Closer to Koridethi in Mark) e (Family 13) e (Family 1)     (Noah Webster) Scofield Reference Bible (KJV) (2011-12)
  2 Thessalonians     Acts 5:3-21   A 02 - Alexandrinus (+ LXX)   Echmiadzin (Armenian) Minuscule 788 Minuscule 543     (1862) (Cyrus I. Scofield's Commentary) The Voice (English)
Proverbs / Paroimiai (Ketuvim-Poetic) Northern (Israel) Prophet (Assyrian Crisis): Book of Jonah (c. II BC) (Nevi'im Aharonim - Latter / Minor Prophet #5)   Uncial 0189 (Oldest parchment ms of NT)   (Long ending of Mark)   (Family13) (Family 13) acp     Young's Literal Translation (YLT) (2017)
  p* - Hebrews     a (8:26-32; 10:26-31)     Alexandrian/Byzantine           (Comma Johanneum) Minuscule 636     (1867, 1872, 1884, 1890)   Christian Standard (CSB) (English - based on Nestle-Aland)
Ecclesiastes (Ketuvim-Wisdom)   (anonymous authorship)   P50         eap       acpr   e(Mt,Mk,Lk,Jn)acp     (uncategorized)     Darby Bible (DBY)
  c - Catholic/General Epistles (7)   Rev 2-3, 5-6, 8-15         Ψ 044 - Athous Lavrensis   Minuscule 2344 Minuscule 1241       (1894)   (1979, 1980, 1982)
Song of Songs / Song of Solomon (Ketuvim)     P115         (Intermediate/Long ending of Mark)       Scrivener's Textus Receptus (Greek)   New King James Bible (NKJV) (English)
  James   r         eacpr eacp apc    
Tobit (Deuterocanonical)   Petrine Epistles 1 Peter     P47 (Chester Beatty)           C 04 - Ephraemi Minuscule 6 (TR) Minuscule 629 (Ottobonianus)     (Revised Authorized Version)
Story of Ahikar / Words of Ahikar (Lost)       2 Peter       Jude, 1 Pet, 2 Pet             apcr (Vulgate, Byz, Western, other)       (1982, 1985)
(Tobit 1:22, Tobit 2:10, Tobit 11:18, Tobit 14,10) Psalms of Solomon (Deuterocanonical) Johannine Epistles 1 John ALEXANDRIAN TEXT   P72 (Bodmer)         P 25 - Porphyrianus (Palimpsest)       "Majority Text" edition of GNT (Hodges & Farstad - based on von Soden & Hoskier's apparatuses)
  2 John   Jn 2:11-22         e             BYZANTINE/MAJORITY TEXT (1976-1991)
Book of Jasher (Book of the Just Man) (Lost)   3 John           Uncial 0162       e† (Luke 1:46-51, 1:54-55, 2:39-32)   Δ 037 - Sangallensis       The Greek NT According to Byz/MJ (Robinson-Piermont - based on Hodges & Farstad)
(2 Sam 1:18, Josh 10:13, 2 Tim 3:8) Wisdom of Sirach (Deuterocanonical)   LOST EPISTLES??? Jude       Romans 4:23-5:3; 5:8-13   eacpr (-2 Thes/-2 John) P42 (Greek & Coptic) e† "Archaic Mark"        
      Uncial 0220   C 04 - Ephraemi   (Alexandrian with some Byzantine, maybe Caesarean?) Uncial 0233 Minuscule 2427 (Allegedly a 19th century forgery)     (2000)
  OG Corinthians (cf. 1 Cor 5:9) c - Pastoral Epistles (3)     Lk 1-6 (one deviation from Vaticanus in Rom. 5:1)   (Long ending of Mark)     (similar to Vaticanus)     World English Bible (WEB) (English - based on RP)
Judith (Deuterocanonical)   A letter potentially preserved in 2 Cor 10-13 - Severe Letter (cf. 2 Cor 2:4, 7:8-9) (pseudonymous/pseudepigraphical authorship)   P4     Mt (partial)        
  A potential reference to Eph. 1:10-14, 2:11-22 - OG Ephesians (cf. Eph. 3:3-4) 1 Timothy     Mt 3; 5; 26 eacpr+Barnabas & Shephard†     Z 035 - Dublinensis (Palimpsest)   r     (1904) (2011)
Jubilees (Deuterocanonical)   Potentially an alternative reference to Ephesians - Laodiceans (cf. Col 4:16) 2 Timothy   P64+67 (Magdalen papyrus) (Aleph) 01 - Sinaiticus (+ LXX)   p   ac     Minuscule 2053           Byzantine with some eclectic readings: New Testament Patriarchal Text (NTPT) (Koine Greek) Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible (English - based on NTPT)
  Titus       Lk 3:18-24:53, Jn 1-15   (Bodmer) r†   I 016 - Freerianus p P74   e†   (superior to P47 and Sinaiticus)     (Antoniadis Text - Greek Orthodox Church)  
    P75 -----> (IV) 0169 - Princeton     H 015 - Coislinianus     Minuscule 892 (From 4th c. uncial)     MODERN GREEK VERSIONS  
  r - Revelation (Apocalypse of John)       p - Rom, Heb, 1 Cor, 2 Cor, Gal, Phil, Col, 1 Thess + missing pages     eacp   e Luke † 1 Cor 1-7 e eacp acp ap† e† (Mt,Mk,Lk,Jn)   (1638)   (1703, 1830)    
*c. 6th century BC - Ketef Hinnom (archaeological site)     P46 (Chester Beatty) B 03 - Vaticanus (+ LXX)   T 029 - Borgianus   Ξ 040 - Zacynthius P11 Close to Vaticanus: L 019 - Regius (TR) Minuscule 33 Minuscule 1739 Minuscule 81 Minuscule 579   Gallipoli's vernacular Greek NT Seraphim's Modern Greek NT      
  e - Canonical Gospels (4)       Titus 1:11-15, 2:3-8                             (close to P46 & Vaticanus)   (collated by Scrivener)         (printed in Geneva) (condemned in 1704 by Orthodox Church)     (1985, 2003)
*605 BC - Battle of Carchemish (Babylon vs Egypt)   BARUCH   (Synoptic Gospels - Matthew, Mark, Luke)   ???? <------- P32         Today's Greek Version (TGV/TGVD) (Demotic Greek)
*V BC - Elephantine papyri       1830 Edition:     (approved by Greek Orthodox Church)
*c. 550 BC - Cyrus the Great (Achaemenid Empire) (Not the "Book of Jeremiah") Letter of Jeremiah / Baruch 6 (Deuterocanonical)   *Marcan priority Mark (without long ending)     Long Endings: Short / Intermediate / Long Endings of Mark (16:9-20) Double / Very Long / Expanded Endings of Mark (16:9-20) (c. 1350) (1569) A.M. Macedo & L. Coletti    
*539 BC - Fall of Neo-Babylonian Empire   *Farrer hypothesis *Q Source *M Source Matthew   e e   (1240) Bible Historiale     Biblia del Oso (Spanish) Edited by August Hermann Francke (1663-1727)     (2012)
Book of Baruch / 1 Baruch (Major Prophet - Deuterocanonical) *Two-source hypothesis   *L Source Luke-Acts   e (harmony of 4 gospels) Syriac Versions: Syriac Sinaiticus (palimpsest) Curetonian Gospels Ambrosianus Alfonso Bible   (French)     Preface by J. Heyman   Antonis Malliaris (Malliaris-Paideia) (Demotic Greek)
*522-486 BC - Reign of Darius I   *Four-document hypothesis   *Signs Gospel/Semeia Source John   Tatian's Diatessaron (Syriac or Greek?) a23† a†     (Long ending Mk) Philoxenian Harklean versions (Spanish) (1569, 1909, 1960, 1995, 2011)   (approved by Greek Orthodox Church)
*c. 587 BC - Solomon's temple destroyed *490 BC - Battle of Marathon *431-404 BC - Peloponnesian War        (With long ending of Mark) *c. 120-180 - Tatian the Syrian P48 (affinities with D text) P38 (Papyrus Michigan) (affinities with D text) Peshitta (Intermediate ending of Mark)   Reina-Valera (RVR) (Spanish)  
*c. 586-7 BC - Seige of Jerusalem by Babylon *486-465 BC - Reign of Xerxes I *c. 432-356 - Philistus (Historian)           CANONICAL NEW TESTAMENT - AUTOGRAPHS           Lk† Mt† ea OT+NT inter alia   (Stephanus 1550) (1833, OT - 1850)   (1967)
*c. 586 - Judah -> Yehud (Babylonian province) *480 BC - Battle of Thermopylae *c. 460-400 - Thucydides (Historian) *356-323 BC - Alexander the Great   *30 AD †   European (Italy-Gaul) P69 (affinities with D text) Uncial 0171   Linear versification: Dea 05 - Bezae Cantabrigensis (Greek & Old Latin) "The Devil's Bible": Codex Gigas     Vamvas' New Testament (VNT) (Katharevousa Greek) Vasilios Vellas' (NTV/ΚΔΤΚ) (Katharevousa Greek)
*c. 697-643 BC - Reign of Manasseh *598-597 BC - Reign of King Jeconiah *c. 446-386 - Aristophanes (Playwrite - Old Comedy) *310-230 BC - Aristarchus of Samos               (Pericope Adulterae, Mk 16:9-20) eacpr                         (Eu. Old Latin)       (based on TR)   (derived from VNT) (1952)
*c. 1050-930 BC - Kingdom of Israel - united monarchy *c. 643-640 BC - Reign of Amon *445-365 BC - Antisthenes (Cynic) *c. 334 - 262 BC - Zeno of Citium (Stoic)       HUMAN LIFESPAN       Mt 21:34-37,43,45(?) e e ff2 - Corbiensis (Eu. Old Latin) p   p       Panagiotis. N. Trembelas' NT (Katharevousa Greek)
*c. 930-720 BC - Northern Kingdom of Israel       *c. 640-609 BC - Reign of Josiah *c. 412-323 - Diogenes of Sinope (Cynic) *c. 307-243 BC - Persaeus of Citium (Stoic) (Ref: 2 Chronicles 33:19)         ???? <------- P104   a - Vercellensis (Eu. Old Latin) b 4 - Veronensis (Eu. Old Latin) Dp 06 - Claromontanus (Greek & Latin)     (Copy of Codex Claromontanus) Dabs1 / g1 - Sangermanensis (Greek-Latin diglot) acp†   (1900) (Parallel Column with Koine)
*c. IX-582 CC - Southern Kingdom of Judah           *c. 516 BC - Rebuilding of the temple *c. 510-428 BC - Anaxagoras *c. 315 - 240 BC - Aratus - poet (Acts 17:28) Prayer of Manasseh (Deuterocanonical)       p (Heavly corrected towards Byzantine Text)     Minuscule 614 (1490-1499) (1581) (1600s) (1751, 1756, 1757, 1759) Anaplasis "Paraphrase" (Matthew) (Katharevousa Greek) (1993-94, 1995, 2008, 2013)
*490-420 BC - Protagoras *341-270 BC - Epicurus (Epicurean)   WESTERN TEXT     *c. 306-373 - Ephrem the Syrian *Hypothetical parent of Claromontanus p acp Gennady's Bible (OCS)   Ostrog Bible (OCS)   Moscow Bible (OCS)   Elizabeth Bible (OCS)   Spyros Filos' Bible (SFT/ΝΜΦ/ΦΙΛ) (Demotic Greek)
*c. 1392-934 BC - Middle Assyrian Empire               *c. 911-609 BC - Neo-Assyrian Empire           *497-405 BC - Sophocles *335-269 BC - Strato of Lampsacus (Peripatetic) 1 Maccabees (Deuterocanonical)       (Diatessaron Commentary) p   G 012 - Boernerianus (Greek with interlinear Latin) Minuscule 383 (Old Church Slavonic) (East Slavic Recension of OCS) (East Slavic Recension of OCS) (Official Russian Orthodox version) (1901) (1995 edition with monotonic script)
*c. 613-611 BC - Battle of Nineveh *c. 525/524-456/455 BC - Aeschylus (tragedian) *fl. V BC - Melissus of Samos (Eliatic) *335-280 BC - Herophilos (anatomist)       e *Hypothetical intermediary copy           p   Queen Olga's Translation (Gospels) (Koine & Katharevousa Greek)
Northwest Semitic languages *490-430 BC - Zeno of Elea (Eliatic) *384-322 BC - Aristotle *c. 330 - 230 BC - Cleanthes (5 lost books) Jason of Cyrene (2 Mac 2:23) 2 Maccabees (Deuterocanonical)   e 2 - Palatinus (African Old Latin) F 010 - Augiensis (Greek-Latin diglot)   (by Ioulia Somaki; edited by Prokopios, Pantazidis & Papadopulos)
Canaanite languages PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY *480-406 BC - Euripides (tragedian) *285-246 BC - Reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus   Epistle of Barnabas                                                     (c. 1454-1455)  
Proto-Canaanite / Proto-Sinaitic script Old Aramaic - prestige language of Mesopotamia & the Levant *c. 624-546 BC - Thales of Miletus *485-380 BC - Gorgias *c. III BC - Hermippus of Smyrna 3 Maccabees (Deuterocanonical) Book of Hermas/Shepherd of Hermas African (Carthage)       eacpr rac† OT+NT       Guttenberg Bible (1590, 1592, 1593, 1598)                 (1979, 1986)
Phoenician Script / Language *c. 610 - 546 BC - Anaximander *c. 460-370 BC - Democritus (Materialism) *c. 350-280 - Hipparchia of Maroneia (Cynic) *167-160 BC - Maccabean Revolt   Didache     k - Bobiensis (African Old Latin)   h 55 - Fleury  (African Old Latin) 6 c -Colbertinus (Old Latin)   (Latin Vulgate) Sixto-Clementine Vulgate (Latin) (1901) Nova Vulgata (Latin)
*c. 734-732 BC - Syro-Ephraimite war *c. 570-495 BC - Pythagoras of Samos *c. V BC - Leucippus *428-423 BC - Plato *c. III BC - Cercidas (Cynic poet) 4 Maccabees (Deuterocanonical) Ignatius     (Intermediate ending of Mark) (Gospel harmonization from Diatessaron) (Eu. & African Old Latin) Pallis' Evangelika (Gospels) (Demotic Greek) (1984, 1992)
Phoenician or Paleo-Hebrew Inscriptions: *c. 786-746 BC - Jeroboam II (Jonah) *c. 585 - 528 BC - Anaximenes of Miletus *c. V BC - Prodicus *430-454 BC - Xenophon *c. 341-290 BC - Menander (Dramatist - Athenian New Comedy) - (1 Cor 15:33)     Polycarp to the Philippians Martyrdom of Polycarp   (Condemned) Novum Testamentum Latine (Latin)
*c. X BC - Gezer Calendar *c. 740-722 BC - Assyrian captivity *c. 570-475 - Xenophanes of Colophon *470-399 BC - Socrates *436-338 BC - Isocrates (Attic orator) *c. III BC - Berossus Wisdom of Solomon (Greek) (Deuterocanonical) Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus *c. III - Vetus Latina (Old Latin)   (OT+NT)   e epacr eacpr   OT+NT
*c. X BC - Zayit Stone *c. 645 BC - Assyria's expansion *c. VI BC - Pherecydes of Syros *c. 445-380 - Lysias (Attic orator) *c. 266 BC - Middle Academy *155 BC - New/Third Academy   First Epistle of Clement (1 Clement) *c. 130 - 202 - Irenaeus (pupil of Polycarp) Jerome's Vulgate (Latin) (Original not extant) Σ Sangallensis 1395 (Vulgate)   F - Fuldensis     A - Amiatinus     Cavensis (Vulgate)
*c. X BC - Ophel inscription *585 BC - Battle of Halys (Eclipse) *c. V BC - Alcmaeon of Croton *c. 440-390 - Andocides (Attic orator) *c. 213-128 BC - Carneades (Academic Skeptic) *c. I BC - Xenarchus of Seleucia (Peripatetic)   Second Epistle of Clement (2 Clement) *c. 170 - Irenaus' anti-gnostic campaign *c. 175-242 - Ammonius Saccas *240 - Origen (Canon) *c. 347 - Jerome   (#2 Vulgate witness) (#1 Vulgate witness) ("Spanish" Vulgate)
*c. 931 - 913 BC - Rehoboam's reign *c. 664/667 BC - Sack of Thebes by Assyrians *c. 515 BC - Parmenides of Elea (Empiricism) *c. 435-356 BC - Aristippus of Cyrene *c. 315-241 BC - Arcesilaus (Academic Skeptic) *c. 187-109 BC - Clitomachus (Academic Skeptic)   *c. 155-206 - Tertullian (Catholic/Montanist) *203-250 - Origen's canon *306-337 - Reign of Constantine e a e eacpr e *c.1549 - Daniel Bomberg
*c. 931-912 BC - Jeroboam's Revolt *c. 836-796 BC - Reign of Jehoash of Judah *535-475 BC - Heractlitus (Rationalism) *c. V-IV - Arete of Cyrene *c. 305-240 BC - Callimachus *c. II BC - Metrodorus of Stratonicea (Pyrrhonian Skeptic)             APOSTOLIC CHURCH FATHERS - AUTOGRAPHS         *c. 180 - Melito of Sardis (OT canon) *248 AD - Origen's "Against Celsus" *313 - Edict of Milan Codex Argenteus (Gothic) Glazier (Coptic Uncial) Lindisfarne Gospels ar 61 - Armagh Wessex Gospels
*c. 638-558 BC - Solon *c. 561-527 BC - Peisistratos *c. V BC - Diogenes of Apollonia CYRENAICS (Hedonism) *c III BC - Apollonius of Rhodes *c. 154-84 BC - Philo of Larissa (Academic Skeptic)   *c. 67-76 - Papacy of Linus *c. 35-107 - Ignatius of Antioch *c. 100-165 - Justin Martyr *c. 170 - 235 AD - Hippolytus of Rome *Sosigenes the Peripatetic *c. 205-270 - Plotinus (Vulgate with Anglo-Saxon Interlinear gloss) ("Irish" Vulgate) (West-Saxon Gospels) *1054 - The Great (East-West) Schizm
*c. 750-650 BC - Hesiod *c. 570-508 BC - Cleisthenes *c. 490 - c. 430 BC - Empedocles *c. 380 BC - Aristippus the Younger *c. 125-68 BC - Antiochus of Ascalon (Academic Skeptic)   *c. 79-92 - Papacy of Anacletus *c. 69 - 155 - Polycarp *150 - Conversion of Tatian by Justin Martyr *Herminus *c. III - Diogenes Laërtius *c. 245-325 - Iamblichus of Chalcis (Neoplatonist) *1440 - 1450 - Rise of the printing press
*c. V BC - Diagoras of Melos (Atheism) *c. 380-320 - Anaxarchus *106 - 43 BC - Cicero (Academic Skeptic)   *c. 88-99 - Pope Clement I (of Rome) *c. 85 - 160 - Marcion of Sinope *c. II - 200 - Pantaenus *Aristotle of Mytilene *c. 216–274 Mani *314 - Synod of Arles *c. 326 - Eusebius' Church History *c. 450-520 - Isidore of Alexandria *1096-1099 - 1st Crusade *1147-1150 - 2nd Crusade *1189-1192 - 3rd Crusade *1202-1204 - 4th Crusade *c.1480 – c.1527 - Demetrius Ducas
*c. 1351-1336 BC - Akhenaten (18th Dynasty of Egypt) The Iliad & The Odyssey *c. 460-403 BC  - Critias *371-287 BC - Theophrastus *99 BC - 55 BC - Lucretius *Reign of Emperor Augustus (27 BC - 14 AD) *c. 60 - 130 - Papias of Hierapolis *144 - Expulsion of Marcion *c. 150-215 - Clement *190-265 - Dionysius of Alexandria (Revelation) *c. 265-340 - Eusebian Canons *c. 335-395 - Gregory of Nyssa *c. V - Cologne Mani-Codex *568 - Invasion of Northern Italy by Lombards *c. 100BC - 1000 AD - JEWISH MYSTICISM *Venetus A (Homer's Iliad) *1217-1221 - 5th Crusade *1453 - Fall of Constantinople *XVI - English Reformation *1564 - 1616 - Shakespeare
*484-425 BC - Herodotus *c. 384-322 BC - Demosthenes *c. 116-27 BC - Marcus Terentius Varro *Reign of Annius Rufus (12 BC - 15 AD) *64 - Great Fire of Rome *81-96 - Reign of Domitian *c. I - Ammonius of Athens   *c. 161-180 - Reign of Marcus Aurelius *Alexander of Aphrodisias (Middle Platonist) *c. 257 - 331 - Gregory the Illuminator *313-398 - Didymus the Blind *c. 349-407 - John Chrysostom *c. 470-544 - Dionysius Exiguus (AD calendar) *692 - Quinisext/Trullan Council (85th Apostolic Canon) Hekhalot literature *c. 973 AD - Regularis Concordia (Winchester) *c. 1119-1139 - Knights Templar *1228-1229 - 6th Crusade *1488 - c. 1569 - Myles Coverdale *1536 - Execution of William Tyndale *1901 - Gospel Riots in Athens *Archimedes Palimpsest discovered
*c. 1332-1323 BC - Tutankhamun (King Tut) *c. 690 BC - Sennacherib's Annals *c. 390-322 BC - Hypereides *c. 279 - 206 BC - Chrysippus of Soli *c. 130/129 BC - Death of Antipater of Tarsus *110 BC - 10 AD - Hillel the Elder   *Reign of Emperor Tiberius (14 - 37) *c. 40 - Philo of Alexandria *70 - Destruction of Jerusalem *c. 46-120 - Plutarch *c. 100 - 200 - Theodotian   *c. IV - Muratorian Fragment (Canon) *155-235 - Cassius Dio (Roman Historian)   *c. 296-373 - Athanasius of Alexandria *c. 350-428 - Thoedore the Interpreter *c. 490-560 - Simplicius of Cilicia (Neoplatonist) *692 - Canons of the Apostles Merkabah mysticism:   *1248-1254 - 7th Crusade *1431 - 1449 - Council of Florence *1608 - 1674 - Milton *c. 1764 - Griesbach hypothesis *c. 1852 - 1914 - Baron von Soden *1931 - Discovery of Chester Beatty Papyri
*c. 700 BC - Siloam inscription *c. 590 BC - Lachish Letters (Ostraca) *480-411 BC - Antiphon (Attic orator) *c. 389-314 BC - Aeschines (Attic orator) *c. 287-212 BC - Archimedes of Syracuse *c. 185 - 110/109 BC - Panaetius (Stoic) *c. 58-50 BC - Gallic Wars   *Reign of Valerius Gratus (15 - 26) *(c. 20 – 30) Musonius Rufus *c. 50 - 135 - Epictetus (Stoic) *c. 90-100 - Council of Jabney (Hebrew canon)? *c. 133-190 - Athenagoras of Athens   *c. 160-210 - Sextus Empiricus   *192/193 - Anonymous Anti-montanist treatise *c. 235 - Porphyry of Tyre *c. 313 - 355 - Donatus Magnus *c. 337-397 - Ambrose *c. 345-430 - Augustine of Hippo *c. 5th Century - Augustinian hypothesis *732 - Battle of Tours *Maaseh Merkabah *920-992 - Adso of Montier-en-Der (De Antichristo) *c. XI - Tobiah ben Eliezer   *1270 - 8th Crusade *1483 - 1546 - Martin Luther *1536 - 1564 John Calvin's Reforms *1626-1676 - Rabbi Sabbatai Zevi *1924 - Repeal of prohibition against Modern Greek bibles
*c. 1279-1213 BC - Ramesses II *c. 870-750 BC - Tel Dan Stele (King David) *c. VI BC - Chilon of Sparta *c. V BC - Sisyphus fragment *c. 390-324 BC - Lycurgus (Attic orator) *c. 276-194 BC - Eratosthenes of Cyrene *c. 181-124 BC - Aristobulus of Alexandria *c. 135 - 51 BC - Posidonius   *Reign of Pontius Pilate (26 – 36) *c. 110-180 - Hegesippus the Nazarene *c. 135-137 - Montanism   *c. 180 - NT Canon formation *c. III - Alexander Romance *380 Edict of Thessalonica *c. V - Augustine's The City of God (book) *c. 673-735 - Bede the Venerable *c. 650 - Paulicianism *X - Bogomilism (dualistic heresy)   *1271-1272 - 9th Crusade *1466 - 1536 - Desiderius Erasmus *1631 - Publication of the Samaritan Pentateuch *1798 - The Granville Sharp Rule *1838 - Two-source Hypothesis *1901-1974 - Ernest Cadman Colwell (Textual Families)
*c. 858-824 BC - Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III *c. VII - VI BC - Epimenides (Titus 1:12) *c. V BC - Derveni papyrus *c. 380-315 BC - Theopompus (Historian) *c. 180 - Sosicrates (Historian) *27 BC - 19 AD - Reign of Augustus   *Reign of Emperor Caligula (37 - 41) *c. I  - Agrippa the Skeptic *117-138 - Reign of Hadrian *Turtullian's Treatise Against Praxeas ("Trinity")   *c. 180 - Ptolemy the Gnostic *c. 213-270 - Gregory Thaumaturgus *367 - 39th Festal Letter of Athanasius (Canon) *780-856 - Rabanus Maurus *862 - Cyril and Methodius' Mission to Great Moravia *1497 - 1560 - Philip Melanchthon *c. 1542-1582 - Gregory Martin *1638 - 1712 - Richard Simon (priest) *1945 - Discovery of Nag Hammadi Library
*c. 1810-1750 BC - Hammurabi *c. 1208 BC - Merneptah Stele *c. 850-750 BC - Samaria Ostraca *c. 495-429 BC - Pericles *c. 400-330 BC - Ephorus (Historian) *c. 190-120 BC - Hipparchus of Nicaea *c. I BC - Arius Didymus *54 BC - 39 AD - Seneca the Elder   *Reign of Marullus (38 - 41) *c II - The Aesop Romance     *c. 177-214 - Reign of Abgar IX of Armenia *c. 268/270 - Lucian deposed for heresy *c. 329 - 390 - Gregory of Nazianzus *c. 569-632 - Mohammad *639-646 - Muslim conquest of Egypt *867 - Christianization of Kievan Rus *1209 - 1229 - Albigensian Crusade *1343 - 1400 - Chaucer *1478 - 1834 - Spanish Inquisition *c. 1846 - 1917 - Caspar René Gregory *1946-1956 - Discovery of DSS
*c. XIV BC - Amarna letters *c. 840 BC - El-Kerak Inscription *c. 620-564 BC - Aesop (Fables) *c. 449 BC - Peace of Callias *c. 361-291 BC - Dinarchus (Attic orator) *c. 180-120 BC - Apollodorus of Athens *4 BC - 65 AD - Seneca the Younger   *Reign of Emperor Claudius (41 - 54) *c. 100-170 - Claudius Ptolemy *115, 168, 181 - Theophilus of Antioch's Ad Autolycum ("Trinity")   *c. 133-190 - Athenagoras of Athens (trinity)   *Serapion rejects Gospel of Peter *c. 270-343 - St. Nikolaos of Myra *331 - 50 Bibles of Constantine? *c. 360 - 418 - Pelagius *c. 384 - Pope Theophilus of Alexandria *c. 100BC - 1000 AD - JEWISH MYSTICISM *1503 - 1559 - Robert Estienne *c. 1545-1563 - Council of Trent (Counter Reformation) *XVIII - Age of Enlightenment *1868 - First Vatican Council *1901 - 1974 - Ernest Cadman Colwell *1962-1965 - Second Vatican Council
*c. 1754 BC - Code of Hammurabi *c. 2500-1450 BC - Linear A (Older?) *c. 840 BC - Mesha Stele (Moabite Stone) NINE LYRIC POETS *c. 446/445-431 - Thirty Years' Peace *c. IV BC - Isaeus (Attic orator) *c. 320-235 - Timon of Phlion (Pyrrhonist) *c. 125 BC - Nash Papyrus   *c. 10-70 - Hero of Alexandria *Reign of Herod Agrippa (41 - 44) *c. 50-135 - Rabbi Akiva   *c. 129-210 - Galen     *303-313 - Diocletianic Persecution   *600 - Apocalypse of Zerubbabel *730 - 787 - First Byzantine Iconoclasm *c. 814 - 842 - Second Byzantine Iconoclasm Hekhalot literature *c. 1150-1228 - Stephen Langton (Versification of the Vulgate) *c. 1300 - The Zohar *1654 - 1656 - Nikon of Moscow's reforms of Russian Orthodox Church (schism) *1896 - Discovery of Oxyrhynchus Papyri *1959 - Claremont Profile Method *1952 - Discovery of Bodmer Papyri
*c. 1250-750 BC - Greek Dark Ages *c. 522-443 - Pindar of Thebes (Lyric poet) *c. 360-270 - Pyrrho of Elis (Pyrrhonian Skeptic) *c. 146/149 BC - Battle of Carthage   *c. 15-100 - Apollonius of Tyana (Neopythagorean Philosopher) *1st Jewish-Roman War (66 - 73) *c. 56-120 - Tacitus *Apuleius of Madauros (The Golden Ass) *c. 125-180 - Lucian of Samosata *Mar Saba Letter (Secret Gospel of Mark?) Merkabah mysticism: *1517 - 95 Edicts of Martin Luther *1549 - Book of Common Prayer (Great Bible) *1662 - Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer (Authorized Version) *1899 - Discovery/Publication of NT ostraca *1970 - Discovery of En-Gedi Scroll
*c. 1450 BC - Linear B *c. IV-III BC - Euhemerus *c. 230 - 150/140 BC - Diogenes of Babylon *c. 146 BC - Battle of Corinth   *78 - Josephus' "The Jewish War" *c. 116 - Tacitus on Christ (Annals 15,44) Councils of Carthage:   *397 - Third Synod of Carthage *397 - 702 - Councils of Toledo     *589 - Third Coucil of Toledo (Filioque)   *Maaseh Merkabah *c. 1135-1204 - Maimonides (Sephardic Jewish philosopher) *1851-1913 - Eberhard Nestle *1915-1994 - Kurt Aland
*c. 1642-1540 - Minoan eruption of Thera/Santorini *c. 257-185/180 BC - Aristophanes of Byzantium *c. 168 BC - Battle of Pydna *c. 80 BC - Mithradatic Wars *93-94 - Josephus' "Antiquities of the Jews" *c. 110-180 - Pausanius First Seven Ecumenical Councils: *325 - First Council of Nicaea *381 - Council of Constantinople *431, 449 - Councils of Ephesus *451 - Council of Chalcedon   *553 - 2nd Council of Constantinople   *680 - 3rd Council of Constantinople *787 - 2nd Council of Nicaea *1687 - 1752 - Johann A. Bengel *1725 - Bengel's theory of NT textual families
*c. 220-143 BC - Aristarchus of Samothrace *c. 170-90 BC - Dionysius Thrax (grammarian)   *93-93 - Josephus' Testimonium Flavianum *121 - Suetonius' The Twelve Caesars (reference to Christians) *c. 882-942 - Sa'adya Gaon (Jewish philosopher) *c. 1113 - Primary Chronicle - Tale of Bygone Years (Rus) *1835-1917 - Henry Barclay Swete
*c. 130 BC - Apollonius Dyscolus (grammarian)   *c. 112 - Pliny's letters to Trajan RE Christians *1865-1935 - Alfred Rahlfs
<---- BRONZE AGE LATE BRONZE AGE COLLAPSE IRON AGE ---->           c. 1050-586 BC - MONARCHIC PERIOD     c. 586-539 BC - EXILIC PERIOD   c. 538-330 BC - POST-EXILIC PERSIAN PERIOD     330-164 BCE - POST-EXILIC HELLENISTIC PERIOD     164-4 BC - MACCABEAN/HASMONEAN PERIOD  
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